Very often, when we talk about bullying, both sides of this non-functional relationship are not taken into consideration: the bully (characterized by actions of prevarication in a systematic way of abuse carried out) and the victim (considered an easy target, a weakling) .
Bullying can be of two types: direct, with physical, verbal, explicit attacks on the victim; indirectly, to harm relationships, to cause isolation, through gossip and slander, this also through the help of the internet, thus turning into cyberbullying (attacking the victim’s network identity).
In order for the joke to no longer be considered such, to be considered bullying it must persist over time, there must be no balance of power between those who carry out actions and those who suffer them, and above all there must be no possibility of defense on the part of the victim.
A further difference is found within gender groups, ie males tend to perform direct actions by hitting males and females, while females perform indirect actions by hitting females of the same age.
A famous survey carried out by Telefono Azzurro in 2014 helped bring to light data that until then were not known in full:
• the school seemed to be the place where the phenomenon developed the most;
• the reactions of the victims were varied, but the most significant datum refers to the fact that 22.7% said nothing and maintained secrecy;
• 48.2 of those interviewed considered the help of adults to be very useful.
It is clear that the families (of the perpetrators and of the victims) must be warned to bring them to knowledge of the events, as they are responsible for minor children, the report must be reported to the School (if the place of origin of the phenomenon) as there are regulations for to avoid such behaviour, it must also be reported to the forces of order (Carabinieri and/or Police) as also in this case there are laws to be respected.
The role of the Psychologist in these circumstances is multiple as he can not only give support to the families involved, but can also make an important support and contribution within the School by training the Teachers, giving them strategies to prevent and manage bullying situations.