Today, Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) represent an important source of discomfort that children, families, educators, psychologists and paediatricians have to deal with. Difficulties in reading, writing and calculating are widespread and are often associated with an important negative impact at an emotional, cognitive and social level (Cornoldi, 2007) .
SLDs are a fairly recent category, this does not mean that they did not once exist but probably that there was not enough information: the first research in this area dates back to the 50s and 60s of the last century, in which some definitions were formulated clinics relating to a set of disorders in which school learning was penalized without compromising intelligence. SLDs do not affect the intelligence quotient (IQ), which can be perfectly within the norm or even above it, but they are operating characteristics that can cause discomfort to the person. In confirmation, it should be noted that characters of the caliber of Einstein and Tesla had Specific Learning Disabilities.
During their schooling, many children and young people encounter moments of particular difficulty in some learning, these difficulties can manifest themselves with different degrees of significance, affecting the individual
disciplines and consequently on general academic performance. This can lead to adaptation problems and a lower self-esteem that are erroneously interpreted as lack of commitment, laziness or
listlessness: the classic “he is intelligent but can do more” statement. For this reason, it is essential to distinguish between difficulties and specific disturbances: the first refers to any generic difficulty of the student in the scholastic context, it is not innate, it can be modified through targeted interventions; DSA, on the other hand, provides for the presence of a more specific deficit, which must be investigated and diagnosed by specialized clinicians, it is innate and resistant to intervention (L. Cisotto, 2012) .
SLDs can be: dyslexia (disorder in reading), dysgraphia (disorder in the writing mechanism), dysorthography (disorder at the level of errors produced) or dyscalculia (disorder related to mathematical skills) depending on the deficit learning area. Diagnosis at this point is essential as it allows you to accompany students and students on a path that involves enhancing strengths and at the same time going to work on weaknesses. A collaboration between School, Family and Professional will therefore allow the
creation of a PDP (Personalized Learning Plan), while the student will be able to follow targeted cognitive rehabilitation, tailor-made together with the professional.

Categories: Mental Health

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